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Molinate

Overview
 
CAS Number: 212-67-1
Synonyms: Hydram, Ordram, Yalan
Contaminant Type: Chemical

Molinate is a selective thiocarbamate herbicide used to control broad-leaved and grassy plants in rice and other crops [495]. Its CAS name is 3S-ethyl hexahydro-1H-azepine-1-carbothioate.

Molinate is no longer used in the United States. A voluntary cancellation phased down the use from 2007 to 2009 and no use of products containing molinate was permitted after August 31, 2009 [1800]. Molinate is not currently regulated by USEPA for drinking water, but does have a maximum contaminant level in the state of California of 20 micrograms per liter [1801].  It is on the Contaminant Candidate List 3 for regulatory consideration.

Molinate has suspected endochrine, reproductive and neurotoxic end points.  It has not been demonstrated to be carcinogenic in humans.

Molinate is miscible with and persistent in water. The aqueous hydrolysis half-life was reported as 365 days and the aqueous photolysis in natural sunlight was reported as stable [1791]. Molinate is not persistent in soil with an aerobic soil degradation half life of 28 days and an anaerobic soil degradation half life of 129 days [1791, 1793]. With a Henry's Law constant of 4.1E-6, molinate is considered volatile and dissipation of molinate from flooded rice paddies occurs as a result of vaporization from the water [1790, 1793].  By hydrolysis or microbial action, molinte may degrade to 4-hydroxy molinate, molinate acid or molinate sulfoxide.

Molinate has not been detected in drinking water sources frequently. For example, molinate was only detected in 4 of 355 wells monitored throughout the U.S. over a 20-year period between 1971 and 1991 in a study compiled by USEPA Office of Prevention Pesticides and Toxic Substances [1649]. In more recent studies, molinate was not detected in California groundwater wells sampled between Ju ly 1, 1997, and June 30, 1999 [1801, 1802, 1803], but was detected in surface waters in the Sacramento Valley in a 1995 survey [1801, 1804].

Date of Literature Search: August 2010



495 Extoxnet; 1996; Extoxnet pesticide information profiles; http://extoxnet.orst.edu/; As posted on July 26, 2007. Extoxnet is a cooperative effort of University of California-Davis, Oregon State University, Michigan State University, Cornell University, and the University of Idaho.
1649 Jacoby, H., Hoheisel, C., Karrie, J., Lees, S., Davies-Hilliard, L., Hannon, P., Bingham, R., Behl, E., Wells, D. and Waldman, E.; 1992; Pesticides in Ground Water Database - A Compilation of Monitoring Studies: 1971 - 1991, National Summary.; Pesticides in Ground Water Database - A Compilation of Monitoring Studies: 1971 - 1991, National Summary.; EPA 734-12-92-001. pp. 54 and 140. Office of Prevention Pesticides and Toxic Substances, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
1790 Syracuse Research Corporation; 2010; SRC PhysProp Database; http://www.syrres.com/what-we-do/databaseforms.aspx?id=386; As posted on August 25, 2010. Syracuse Research Corporation, North Syracuse, New York
1791 Agriculture and Environment Research Unit, University of Hertfordshire; 2010; Pesticide Properties Database - Molinate; http://sitem.herts.ac.uk/aeru/footprint/en/index.htm; As posted on August 25, 2010. Agriculture and Environment Research Unit, University of Hertfordshire, Hertfordshire, UK.
1793 California Environmental Protection Agency; 1996; Molinate (Ordram) Risk Characterization Document; Molinate (Ordram) Risk Characterization Document; pp. 4-8, Medical Toxicology and Worker Health and Safety Branches, Department of Pesticide Regulation, California Environmental Protection Agency
1800 USEPA, Office of Pesticide Programs ; 2008; Molinate Voluntary Cancellation Requested; http://www.epa.gov/oppfead1/cb/csb_page/updates/molinate-volca.htm; As posted on August 25, 2010.
1801 California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment; 2003; Water - Public Health Goals - Molinate (Ordram) ; http://oehha.ca.gov/public_info/public/phg4.html; As posted on August 25, 2010.
1802 California Environmental Protection Agency; 1999; Sampling for pesticide residues in California well water 1999 Update of the well inventory database for sampling results reported from July 1, 1998 through June 30, 1999.; Sampling for pesticide residues in California well water 1999 Update of the well inventory database for sampling results reported from July 1, 1998 through June 30, 1999.; EH00-04, Department of Pesticide Regulation, California Environmental Protection Agency, Sacramento, California.
1803 California Environmental Protection Agency; 2000; Sampling for Pesticide Residues in California Well Water 2000 Update of the Well Inventory Database For Sampling Results Reported From July 1, 1999 through June 30, 2000; Sampling for Pesticide Residues in California Well Water 2000 Update of the Well Inventory Database For Sampling Results Reported From July 1, 1999 through June 30, 2000; EH00-15, Department of Pesticide Regulation, California Environmental Protection Agency, Sacramento, California.
1804 Bennett, K., Singhasemanon, N., Miller, N., and Gallavan, R. ; 1998; Rice Pesticides Monitoring in the Sacramento Valley, 1995; California Environmental Protection Agency; Environmental Hazards Assessment Program, California Department of Pesticide Regulation, Sacramento, California.



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